Advanced Functionalities

This section covers slightly more advanced, but useful features that enriches your implementation.

Topics and Keys

The RTPS standard contemplates the use of keys to define multiple data sources/sinks within a single topic.

There are two ways of implementing keys into your topic:

  • Defining a @Key field in the IDL file when using FastRTPSGen (see the examples that come with the distribution).
  • Manually implementing and using a getKey() method.

Publishers and Subscribers using topics with keys must be configured to use them, otherwise they will have no effect:

//Publisher-Subscriber Layer configuration
PubAttributes.topic.topicKind = WITH_KEY

The RTPS Layer requires you to call the getKey() method manually within your callbacks.

You can tweak the History to accomodate data from multiples keys based on your current configuration. This consinst on defining a maximum number of data sinks and a maximum size for each sink:

Rparam.topic.resourceLimitsQos.max_instances = 3; //Set the subscriber to remember and store up to 3 different keys
Rparam.topic.resourceLimitsQos.max_samples_per_instance = 20; //Hold a maximum of 20 samples per key

Note that your History must be big enough to accomodate the maximum number of samples for each key. eProsima Fast RTPS will notify you if your History is too small.

Flow Controllers

eProsima Fast RTPS supports user configurable flow controllers on a Publisher and Participant level. These controllers can be used to limit the amount of data to be sent under certain conditions depending on the kind of controller implemented.

The current release implement throughput controllers, which can be used to limit the total message throughput to be sent over the network per time measurement unit. In order to use them, a descriptor must be passed into the Participant or Publisher Attributes.

PublisherAttributes WparamSlow;
ThroughputControllerDescriptor slowPublisherThroughputController{300000, 1000}; //Limit to 300kb per second
WparamSlow.throughputController = slowPublisherThroughputController;

In the Writer-Reader layer, the throughput controllers is built-in and the descriptor defaults to infinite throughput. To change the values:

WriterAttributes WParams;
WParams.throughputController.size = 300000; //300kb
WParams.throughputController.timeMS = 1000; //1000ms

Note that specifying a throughput controller with a size smaller than the socket size can cause messages to never become sent.

Sending large data

The default message size eProsima Fast RTPS uses is a conservative value of 65kb. If your topic data is bigger, it must be fragmented.

Fragmented messages are sent over multiple packets, as understood by the particular transport layer. To make this possible, you must configure the Publisher to work in asynchronous mode.

PublisherAttributes Wparam;
Wparam.qos.m_publishMode.kind = ASYNCHRONOUS_PUBLISH_MODE; // Allows fragmentation

In the Writer-Subscriber layer, you have to configure the Writer:

WriterAttributes Wparam;
Wparam.mode = ASYNCHRONOUS_WRITER;  // Allows fragmentation

Note that in best-effort mode messages can be lost if you send big data too fast and the buffer is filled at a faster rate than what the client can process messages. On the other hand, in reliable mode, the existence of a lot of data fragments could decrease the frequency at which messages are received. If this happens, it can be resolved by increasing socket buffers size, as described in Increasing socket buffers size. It can also help to set a lower Heartbeat period in reliable mode, as stated in Tuning Realiable mode.

When you are sending large data, it is convenient to setup a flow controller to avoid a burst of messages in the network and increase performance. See Flow Controllers

Example: Sending a unique large file

This is a proposed example of how should the user configure its application in order to achieve the best performance. To make this example more tangible, it is going to be supposed that the file have a size of 9.9MB and the network in which the publisher and the subscriber are operating has a bandwith of 100MB/s

First of all, asynchronous mode has to be activated in the publisher parameters. Then, a suitable reliability mode has to be selected. In this case it is important to make sure that all fragments of the message are received. The loss of a fragment means the loss of the entire message, so it would be best to choose reliable mode.

The default message size of this fragments using the UDPv4 transport has a value of 65kb (which includes the space reserved to the data and the message header). This means that the publisher would have to write at least about 1100 fragments.

This amount of fragment could slow down the transmission, so it could be interesting to decrease the heartbeat period in order to increase the reactivity of the publisher.

Another important consideration is the addition of a flow controller. Without a flow controller, the publisher can occupy the entire bandwith. A reasonable flow controller for this application could be a limit of 5MB/s, which represents only a 5% of the total bandwith. Anyway, this values are highly dependant of the specific application and its desired behaviour.

At last, there is another detail to have in mind: it is critical to check the size of the system UDP buffers. In Linux, buffers can be enlarged with

sysctl -w net.ipv4.udp_mem="102400 873800 16777216"
sysctl -w net.core.netdev_max_backlog="30000"
sysctl -w net.core.rmem_max="16777216"
sysctl -w net.core.wmem_max="16777216"

Example: Video streaming

In this example the target application transmits video between a publisher and a subscriber. This video will have a resolution of 640x480 and a frequency of 50fps.

As in the previous example, since the application is sending data that requires fragmentation, asynchronous mode has to be activated in the publisher parameters.

In audio or video transmissions, sometimes is better to have an stable and high datarate feed than a 100% lossless communication. Working with a frequency of 50hz, makes insignificant the loss of one or two samples each second. Thus, for a higher performance it can be appropiate to configure the reliability mode to best-effort.

Transport Layer

Unless you specify other configuration, eProsima Fast RTPS will use its built-in UDPv4 Transport Layer with a default configuration. You can change this default configuration or switch to UDPv6 by providing an alternative configuration when you create the Participant.

RTPSParticipantAttributes Pparams;
auto my_transport = std::make_shared<UDPv6Transport::TransportDescriptor>(); //Create a descriptor for the new transport
Pparams.useBuiltinTransport = false; //Disable the built-in Transport Layer
Pparams.userTransports.push_back(my_transport); //Link the Transport Layer to the Participant

Note that unless you manually disable the built-in transport layer, the Participant will use your custom transport configuration along the built-in one.

This distribution comes with an example of how to change the configuration of the transport layer. It can be found here.


Fast RTPS provides a discovery mechanism that allows to match automatically publishers and subscribers. The discovery mechanism is divided in two phases: Participant Discovery Phase and Endpoints Discovery Phase.

  • Participant Discovery Phase (PDP)
    Before discovering any entity of a remote participant, both participants have to met between them. Participant Discovery Phase provides this step and is responsible for sending periodic information about itself. To know how to configure where to send this periodic information, see Initial peers. When both participants are met, is the turn of Endpoints Discovery Phase.
  • Endpoints Discovery Phase (EDP)
    This phase is responsible for sending entities information to the remote participant. Also it has to process the entities information of the remote participant and check which entities can match between them.

By default the discovery mechanism is enabled, but you can disable it through participant attributes.

ParticipantAttributes participant_attr;
participant_attr.rtps.builtin.use_SIMPLE_RTPSParticipantDiscoveryProtocol = false;

Static Endpoints Discovery

Endpoints Discovery Phase can be replaced by a static version that doesn’t send any information. It is useful when you have a limited network bandwidth and a well-known schema of publishers and subscribers. Instead of receiving entities information for matching, this information is loaded from a XML file.

First of all, you have to disable the Endpoints Discovery Phase and enable the Static Endpoints Discovery. This can be done from the participant attributes.

ParticipantAttributes participant_attr;
participant_attr.rtps.builtin.use_SIMPLE_EndpointDiscoveryProtocol = false;
participant_attr.rtps.builtin.use_STATIC_EndpointDiscoveryProtocol = true;

Then, you will need to load the XML file containing the configuration of the remote participant. So, for example, if there is a remote participant with a subscriber which is waiting to receive samples from your publisher, you will need to load the configuration of this remote participant.


A basic XML configuration file for this remote participant would contain information like the name of the remote participant, the topic name and data type of the subscriber, and its entity and user defined ID. All these values have to exactly match the parameter values used to configure the remote participant (through the class ParticipantAttributes) and its subscriber (through the class SubscriberAttributes). Missing elements will acquire default values. For example:


The XML that configures the participant on the other side (in this case, a subscriber) could look like this:


You can find an example that uses Static Endpoint Discovery.

The full list of fields for readers and writers includes the following parameters:

  • userId: numeric value.
  • entityID: numeric value.
  • expectsInlineQos: true or false. (only valid for readers)
  • topicName: text value.
  • topicDataType: text value.
  • topicKind: NO_KEY or WITH_KEY.
  • unicastLocator
    • address: text value.
    • port: numeric value.
  • multicastLocator
    • address: text value.
    • port: numeric value.
  • topic
    • name: text value.
    • data type: text value.
    • kind: text value.
  • ownershipQos
  • partitionQos: text value.
  • livelinessQos
    • leaseDuration_ms: numeric value.

Subscribing to Discovery Topics

As specified in the Discovery section, the Participant or RTPS Participant has a series of meta-data endpoints for use during the discovery process. It is possible to create a custom listener that listens to the Endpoint Discovery Protocol meta-data. This allows you to create your own network analysis tools.

/* Create Custom user ReaderListeners */
CustomReaderListener *my_readerListenerSub = new(CustomReaderListener);
CustomReaderListener *my_readerListenerPub = new(CustomReaderListener);
/* Get access to the EDP endpoints */
std::pair<StatefulReader*,StatefulReader*> EDPReaders = my_participant->getEDPReaders();
/* Install the listeners for Subscribers and Publishers Discovery Data*/
/* ... */
/* Custom Reader Listener onNewCacheChangeAdded*/
void onNewCacheChangeAdded(RTPSReader * reader, const CacheChange_t * const change)
    if (change->kind == ALIVE) {
        WriterProxyData proxyData;

        CDRMessage_t tempMsg(0);
        tempMsg.wraps = true;
        tempMsg.msg_endian = change_in->serializedPayload.encapsulation == PL_CDR_BE ? BIGEND : LITTLEEND;
        tempMsg.length = change_in->serializedPayload.length;
        tempMsg.max_size = change_in->serializedPayload.max_size;
        tempMsg.buffer = change_in->;

        if (proxyData.readFromCDRMessage(&tempMsg)) {
            cout << proxyData.topicName();
            cout << proxyData.typeName();

The callbacks defined in the ReaderListener you attach to the EDP will execute for each data message after the built-in protocols have processed it.


Taking advantage of multicast

For topics with several subscribers it is recommendable to configure them to use multicast instead of unicast. By doing so, only one network package will be sent for each sample. This will improve both CPU and network usage. Multicast configuration is explained in Multicast locators.

Increasing socket buffers size

In high rate scenarios or large data scenarios the bottleneck could be the size of the socket buffers. Network packages could be dropped because there is no space in the socket buffer. Using Reliable Reliability Fast RTPS will try to recover lost samples, but with the penalty of retransmission. Using Best-Effort Reliability samples will be definitely lost.

By default eProsima Fast RTPS creates socket buffers with the system default size, but you can modify it. sendSocketBufferSize attribute helps increasing the socket buffer used to send data. listenSocketBufferSize attribute helps increasing the socket buffer used to read data.

part_attr.rtps.sendSocketBufferSize = 1048576;
part_attr.rtps.listenSocketBufferSize = 4194304;
   <participant profile_name="participant_xml_profile">

Finding out system maximum values

Linux operating system sets a maximum value for socket buffer sizes. When you set in Fast RTPS a socket buffer size, your value cannot exceed the maximum value of the system.

For getting these values you can use the command sysctl. Maximum buffer size value of socket buffers used to send data could be retrieved using this command:

$> sudo sysctl -a | grep net.core.wmem_max
net.core.wmem_max = 1048576

For socket buffers used to receive data the command is:

$> sudo sysctl -a | grep net.core.rmem_max
net.core.rmem_max = 4194304

If these default maximum values are not enough for you, you can also increase them.

$> echo 'net.core.wmem_max=12582912' >> /etc/sysctl.conf
$> echo 'net.core.rmem_max=12582912' >> /etc/sysctl.conf

Tuning Realiable mode

RTPS protocol can maintain a reliable communication using special messages (Heartbeat and Ack/Nack messages). RTPS protocol can detect which samples are lost and re-sent them again.

You can modify the frequency these special submessages are exchanged by specifying a custom heartbeat period. The heartbeat period in the Publisher-Subscriber level is configured as part of the ParticipantAttributes:

PublisherAttributes pubAttr;
pubAttr.times.heartbeatPeriod.seconds = 0;
pubAttr.times.heartbeatPeriod.fraction = 4294967 * 500; //500 ms

In the Writer-Reader layer, this belong to the WriterAttributes:

WriterAttributes Wattr;
Wattr.times.heartbeatPeriod.seconds = 0;
Wattr.times.heartbeatPeriod.fraction = 4294967 * 500; //500 ms

A smaller heartbeat period increases the amount of overhead messages in the network, but speeds up the system response when a piece of data is lost.

Non-strict reliability

Using a strict reliability, configuring History kind as KEEP_ALL, determinates all samples have to be received by all subscribers. This implicates a performance decrease in case a lot of samples are dropped. If you don’t need this strictness, use a non-strict reliability, i.e. configure History kind as KEEP_LAST.

Slow down sample rate

Sometimes publishers could send data in a too high rate for subscribers. This can end dropping samples. To avoid this you can slow down the rate using Flow Controllers.

Additional Quality of Service options

As a user, you can implement your own quality of service (QoS) restrictions in your application. eProsima Fast RTPS comes bundled with a set of examples of how to implement common client-wise QoS settings:

  • Deadline: Rise an alarm when the frequency of message arrival for a topic falls below a certain threshold.
  • Ownership Srength: When multiple data sources come online, filter duplicates by focusing on the higher priority sources.
  • Filtering: Filter incoming messages based on content, time, or both.

These examples come with their own Readme.txt that explains how the implementations work.

This marks the end of this document. We recommend you to take a look at the doxygen API reference and the embedded examples that come with the distribution. If you need more help, send us an email to